Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe, NCERT, CLASS TENTH SUBJECT SOCIAL SCIENCE, CBSE,RBSE
Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Section i: The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation
1. Background of the French Revolution
- Economic and Social Context: France in the late 18th century was marked by social inequalities and economic hardships. The monarchy’s excessive spending and the influence of Enlightenment ideas fueled a growing discontent among the populace.
2. Revolutionary Ideals
- Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: These became the guiding principles of the revolution. They symbolized the desire for a society based on freedom, equal rights, and brotherhood, as opposed to the hierarchical and privileged Ancien Régime.
3. Nationalism Emerges
- From Subjects to Citizens: The revolution transformed subjects of a monarchy into citizens of a nation. It emphasized that sovereignty did not belong to the monarch but to the nation itself, made up of its people.
- Role of the State: The revolution redefined the role of the state, which was to represent the people and their interests, a radical shift from the notion of a divine-right monarchy.
4. The Revolution and Europe
- Spreading the Ideas: The revolutionary ideas rapidly spread across Europe, influencing political thought and inspiring uprisings and nationalist movements in other regions.
5. Legacy of the Revolution
- Long-term Impact: The French Revolution left an indelible mark on the concept of nationhood. It laid the groundwork for modern democracies and the principles of national self-determination.