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NCERT Class 10 Social Science Analysis: Exploring the Diverse Sectors of the Indian Economy – Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary

Sectors of the Indian Economy


Understanding the different sectors of the Indian economy is crucial for comprehending its overall structure and functionality. This comprehensive article, tailored to the NCERT Class 10 Social Science syllabus, explores the various sectors of economic activities in India, their comparisons, and their classifications based on organization and ownership.

Sectors of Economic Activities

The Indian economy is divided into three main sectors: primary, secondary, and tertiary, each playing a unique role.

Primary Sector

  • Activities: Involves extraction and production of natural resources like agriculture, fishing, forestry, and mining.
  • Significance: Forms the base for all other products and is predominantly rural.

Secondary Sector

  • Activities: Encompasses manufacturing and construction activities.
  • Role: Involves transforming raw materials into finished goods, crucial for industrial development.

Tertiary Sector

  • Activities: Includes services like banking, education, health, and retail.
  • Growth: Fastest-growing sector, contributing significantly to GDP and employment.

Comparing the Three Sectors

Each sector contributes differently to the economy.

Contribution to GDP

  • Evolving Trends: Over time, the contribution of the tertiary sector has increased, while that of the primary sector has decreased.


  • Primary Sector Dominance: Despite a lower GDP contribution, the primary sector employs the majority of the workforce.

Productivity and Growth

  • Tertiary Sector: Shows higher productivity and growth rates.

Organized and Unorganized Sectors

The Indian economy is also divided based on the nature of employment.

Organized Sector

  • Characteristics: Registered, regular salary, and social security benefits.
  • Example Industries: Large businesses and government jobs.

Unorganized Sector

  • Characteristics: Small or unregistered, casual workers, lack of formal employer-employee relationships.
  • Example Industries: Small-scale industries, street vendors.

Sectors in Terms of Ownership

Ownership defines the control and management of enterprises.

Public Sector

  • Ownership: Owned and operated by the government.
  • Objectives: Social welfare, infrastructure development, regional balance.

Private Sector

  • Ownership: Owned and managed by individuals or companies.
  • Objectives: Profit maximization, efficiency, innovation.


The sectors of the Indian economy are diverse, each with its characteristics and contributions. Understanding these sectors provides insight into India’s economic structure, employment patterns, and the challenges of balancing growth with social development. The interplay between these sectors and their evolution over time is crucial for students to grasp the complexities of economic development in India.

25 questions and answers covering the topic of “Sectors of the Indian Economy” for Class 10 Social Science:

  1. Q: What are the three main sectors of the Indian economy?
    A: The three main sectors are the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors.
  2. Q: What activities are included in the primary sector?
    A: It includes agriculture, forestry, fishing, and mining.
  3. Q: What is the role of the secondary sector?
    A: The secondary sector is involved in manufacturing and construction, transforming raw materials into finished goods.
  4. Q: What activities are part of the tertiary sector?
    A: It encompasses services like banking, education, health, and retail.
  5. Q: Which sector has grown the fastest in recent years in India?
    A: The tertiary sector has been the fastest-growing sector.
  6. Q: How is the organized sector characterized?
    A: The organized sector includes registered businesses that provide regular salaries and social security benefits.
  7. Q: What defines the unorganized sector?
    A: It consists of unregistered or small-scale operations, often with casual employment and no formal employer-employee relationship.
  8. Q: What is the public sector?
    A: The public sector is owned and operated by the government.
  9. Q: What are the objectives of the public sector?
    A: Objectives include social welfare, infrastructure development, and ensuring regional balance.
  10. Q: What is the private sector?
    A: The private sector is owned and managed by individuals or companies.
  11. Q: What drives the private sector?
    A: The main objectives are profit maximization, efficiency, and innovation.
  12. Q: How does the primary sector contribute to the Indian economy?
    A: It forms the base for all other products and is predominantly rural, contributing significantly to employment.
  13. Q: Why is the secondary sector important?
    A: It’s crucial for industrial development and creating higher value for products.
  14. Q: What is the significance of the tertiary sector in India?
    A: It contributes significantly to GDP and employment, showing higher productivity and growth rates.
  15. Q: Why does the primary sector employ more people than its GDP contribution?
    A: This is due to the lower productivity and traditional nature of activities in the primary sector.
  16. Q: How does the organized sector benefit employees?
    A: It provides job security, regular income, and social security benefits.
  17. Q: Why is the unorganized sector critical in India?
    A: It employs a large portion of the workforce, often in informal and small-scale jobs.
  18. Q: What challenges does the tertiary sector face?
    A: Challenges include maintaining service quality, managing rapid growth, and ensuring equitable access to services.
  19. Q: How does the secondary sector impact economic development?
    A: It boosts industrialization, creates job opportunities, and enhances export potential.
  20. Q: What role does agriculture play in the Indian economy?
    A: Agriculture is a major part of the primary sector, supporting livelihoods and contributing to food security.
  21. Q: How do public sector enterprises contribute to the economy?
    A: They play a key role in infrastructure development, social services, and balancing regional disparities.
  22. Q: What challenges do private sector companies face?
    A: Challenges include competition, market fluctuations, and the need for continuous innovation.
  23. Q: Why is the manufacturing sector important?
    A: Manufacturing boosts economic growth, increases value addition, and can reduce dependence on imports.
  24. Q: How does the service sector contribute to the economy?
    A: It provides essential services, drives innovation, and has become a major part of GDP and employment.
  25. Q: What is the future outlook for the Indian economy in terms of sectoral contribution?
    A: The future outlook suggests a growing role for the tertiary sector, continued importance of agriculture, and the need for industrial growth.