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NCERT Class 10 Social Science Deep Dive: Exploring Water Resources, Conservation Strategies, and Sustainable Management

Water Resources


Water is a fundamental resource for life and development. However, its availability is becoming increasingly scarce due to various factors, leading to a dire need for effective water conservation and management strategies. This article delves into the aspects of water scarcity, multipurpose river projects, integrated water resources management, and rainwater harvesting.

Water Scarcity and the Need for Water Conservation and Management

Water scarcity is becoming a global issue, exacerbated by factors like increasing population, overuse, pollution, and climate change. This scarcity affects not only the availability of water but also its quality.

Causes of Water Scarcity

  • Overuse and Mismanagement: Excessive and inefficient use of water in agriculture and industries.
  • Pollution: Contamination of water bodies due to industrial waste, agricultural run-off, and improper waste disposal.
  • Climate Change: Altered rainfall patterns and increased frequency of droughts and floods.

Need for Conservation

Conservation and efficient management of water resources are vital to ensure a sustainable supply for future generations. It involves the implementation of practices that reduce waste, recycle water, and improve water use efficiency.

Multipurpose River Projects and Integrated Water Resources Management

Multipurpose river projects (MRPs) are designed to serve various objectives like irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, flood control, and water supply for domestic and industrial uses.

Benefits and Challenges of MRPs

  • Benefits: MRPs provide multiple benefits such as water for irrigation, electricity generation, flood control, and recreation.
  • Challenges: These projects often lead to environmental issues like deforestation, displacement of people, and changes in the local ecosystem.

Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)

IWRM is a process that promotes coordinated development and management of water, land, and related resources to maximize economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.

Rainwater Harvesting

Rainwater harvesting is the collection and storage of rainwater for reuse. It’s an effective way to conserve water, especially in areas facing water scarcity.

Techniques of Rainwater Harvesting

  • Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting: Collecting rainwater from rooftops and storing it for later use.
  • Groundwater Recharge: Techniques like percolation pits and trenches are used to enhance groundwater recharge.

Advantages of Rainwater Harvesting

  • Sustainability: It ensures a continuous and sustainable water supply.
  • Reduces Overuse of Groundwater: Helps in reducing dependence on groundwater.


The chapter on “Water Resources” highlights the critical challenges associated with water scarcity and the imperative need for efficient water management practices. It underscores the importance of sustainable approaches such as multipurpose river projects, IWRM, and rainwater harvesting in ensuring water security for current and future generations. These practices are crucial in striking a balance between meeting human needs and preserving the environment.

Here are 25 questions and answers covering the topic of “Water Resources”:

  1. Q: What is water scarcity?
    A: Water scarcity is the shortage of adequate, accessible water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region.
  2. Q: What causes water scarcity?
    A: Causes include overuse of water, pollution, climate change, and inefficient water management.
  3. Q: Why is water conservation important?
    A: It’s vital for sustaining life, maintaining ecosystems, and ensuring a stable supply for future generations.
  4. Q: What is a Multipurpose River Project (MRP)?
    A: MRP is a project that serves multiple purposes like irrigation, power generation, water supply, and flood control.
  5. Q: What are the benefits of MRPs?
    A: Benefits include improved irrigation, electricity generation, flood control, and increased water availability.
  6. Q: What are the challenges associated with MRPs?
    A: Challenges include environmental impact, displacement of communities, and alteration of ecosystems.
  7. Q: What is Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)?
    A: IWRM is a process that promotes coordinated development and management of water, land, and related resources.
  8. Q: How does IWRM benefit water management?
    A: It ensures sustainable water use, balancing social, economic, and environmental needs.
  9. Q: What is rainwater harvesting?
    A: It’s the collection and storage of rainwater for reuse, instead of allowing it to run off.
  10. Q: Why is rainwater harvesting important?
    A: It helps in conserving water, reducing dependence on other water sources, and mitigating urban flooding.
  11. Q: What are some techniques of rainwater harvesting?
    A: Techniques include rooftop rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge through percolation pits.
  12. Q: What are the main sources of water pollution?
    A: Sources include industrial discharge, agricultural runoff, sewage discharge, and improper waste disposal.
  13. Q: How can individuals contribute to water conservation?
    A: By using water efficiently, fixing leaks, practicing rainwater harvesting, and spreading awareness.
  14. Q: What is groundwater recharge?
    A: It’s the process of directing rainwater to replenish underground aquifers.
  15. Q: Why is groundwater overuse a concern?
    A: Overuse leads to depletion of aquifers, land subsidence, and reduced water availability for future use.
  16. Q: How do MRPs affect local ecosystems?
    A: They can disrupt natural water flow, affect fish populations, and lead to loss of biodiversity.
  17. Q: What is the impact of climate change on water resources?
    A: Climate change alters precipitation patterns, increases the frequency of droughts and floods, and impacts water availability.
  18. Q: Why is sustainable water management crucial?
    A: It’s essential to meet human needs while protecting the environment and conserving resources for future generations.
  19. Q: What role does the community play in water resource management?
    A: Communities can participate in conservation efforts, decision-making, and implementing sustainable practices.
  20. Q: How does urbanization impact water resources?
    A: Urbanization increases water demand, leads to pollution, and reduces natural recharge areas.
  21. Q: What are waterborne diseases?
    A: Diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that are transmitted in contaminated water.
  22. Q: How can water conservation help in reducing waterborne diseases?
    A: By ensuring a clean and reliable water supply, and reducing the spread of contaminants.
  23. Q: What is the role of wetlands in water conservation?
    A: Wetlands act as natural water filters, help in flood control, and maintain groundwater levels.
  24. Q: How does deforestation affect water resources?
    A: Deforestation leads to reduced rainfall, increased runoff, and soil erosion, affecting water availability.
  25. Q: What is desalination, and how can it help in water scarcity?
    A: Desalination is the process of removing salt from seawater to make it suitable for human use, helping to address water scarcity in coastal areas.