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NCERT| RBSE, CBSE | CLASS TENTH, SUBJECT MATHS, UNIT SECOND, Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables

Here’s an explanation of pairs of linear equations in two variables:

Imagine a Treasure Map:

  • You’re on an algebraic adventure, seeking the hidden treasure of mathematical solutions!
  • Your map consists of two paths, each represented by a linear equation.
  • Your goal is to find the point where these paths intersect, revealing the treasure’s location.

Understanding Linear Equations:

  • Equations as Sentences: A linear equation in two variables is like a sentence describing a relationship between two quantities (usually represented by x and y).
  • General Form: It usually looks like this: ax + by + c = 0, where a, b, and c are numbers (and a and b can’t both be zero).
  • Graphing Lines: Each equation can be graphed as a straight line on a coordinate plane.

Pair of Linear Equations:

  • Two Paths: A pair of linear equations means you have two sentences, each describing a different line.
  • Finding the Intersection: The solution to the pair is the point where both lines cross, satisfying both equations simultaneously.

Methods to Solve:

  • Graphical Method: Plot both lines on the same graph and see where they intersect (visual solution).
  • Substitution Method: Solve one equation for one variable and substitute it into the other equation, reducing it to a single-variable equation.
  • Elimination Method: Add or subtract the equations in a way that eliminates one variable, solving for the other.

Types of Solutions:

  • Unique Solution: The lines intersect at one point (treasure found!).
  • No Solution: The lines are parallel and never meet (treasure remains elusive).
  • Infinite Solutions: The lines overlap, with every point on one line also satisfying the other (treasure is everywhere!).

Real-World Applications:

  • Making Decisions: Pair of linear equations help solve problems involving relationships between quantities, like:
    • Balancing costs and revenue in business.
    • Mixing ingredients in recipes.
    • Calculating distance, speed, and time in travel.
  • Modeling Situations: They can represent linear relationships in various fields, such as:
    • Physics (force, acceleration, distance).
    • Economics (supply, demand, price).
    • Engineering (structural analysis, resource optimization).

Key Points:

  • Understanding pairs of linear equations is essential for solving problems involving two interconnected variables.
  • Different solving methods offer flexibility in finding solutions.
  • Applications extend across various fields, making them a valuable tool in problem-solving and decision-making.

Here are examples to illustrate pairs of linear equations:

Example 1: Unique Solution

  • Equations: 2x + 3y = 12 and x – y = 1
  • Graphical Method: Plotting shows they intersect at (3, 2).
  • Substitution Method: Solving x – y = 1 for x gives x = y + 1. Substituting into 2x + 3y = 12 yields 2(y + 1) + 3y = 12, solving for y = 2, then x = 3.
  • Elimination Method: Adding the equations eliminates y: 3x = 13, giving x = 3, then y = 2.

Example 2: No Solution

  • Equations: 3x + 2y = 6 and 6x + 4y = 15
  • Graphical Method: Both lines have the same slope, so they’re parallel and never intersect.
  • Substitution or Elimination: Any attempt to solve leads to a contradiction, indicating no solution.

Example 3: Infinite Solutions

  • Equations: 4x – 2y = 8 and 8x – 4y = 16
  • Graphical Method: Both equations represent the same line, so all points on it satisfy both equations.
  • Substitution or Elimination: Both equations simplify to 2x – y = 4, indicating infinite solutions.

Real-World Examples:

  • Ticket Sales: A theater sells adult tickets for $15 and child tickets for $10. If they sell 500 tickets for $6000, how many of each kind were sold? (Represent with equations and solve.) Answer
  • Mixing Solutions: A chemist needs 10 liters of a 20% acid solution. They have 30% and 15% solutions available. How much of each should be mixed? (Represent with equations and solve.)
  • Travel Planning: A car travels 500 miles at a constant speed. If it had gone 10 mph faster, it would have taken 2 hours less. What was its speed and time? (Represent with equations and solve.)

10 Questions and Answers on Pairs of Linear Equations:

1. What is a pair of linear equations in two variables?

It’s a system of two equations, each involving two variables (usually x and y) and constants, connected by an equal sign. Solving such a system means finding the values of x and y that satisfy both equations simultaneously.

2. How can we solve a pair of linear equations?

There are several methods:

  • Graphical Method: Plot both equations as lines on a coordinate plane and find the point where they intersect.
  • Substitution Method: Solve one equation for one variable and substitute it into the other equation, reducing it to a single-variable equation and solving for the remaining variable.
  • Elimination Method: Add or subtract the equations in a way that eliminates one variable, then solve for the other variable.
  • Matrix Method: Represent the system using a matrix and solve using specific algebraic operations.

3. What are the different types of solutions for a pair of linear equations?

  • Unique Solution: The lines intersect at only one point, indicating a single set of values for x and y.
  • No Solution: The lines are parallel and never meet, suggesting no values satisfy both equations.
  • Infinite Solutions: The lines overlap completely, meaning any point on one line also satisfies the other, offering infinitely many solutions.

4. How can we identify the type of solution without solving the equations?

  • Check the slopes of the equations:
    • Parallel lines have equal slopes, suggesting no solution.
    • Perpendicular lines have slopes that are negative reciprocals of each other, indicating a unique solution.
    • Lines with the same slope might overlap (infinite solutions) or be distinct (no solution) – further analysis is needed.
  • Use the constant terms: If adding or subtracting the constant terms results in the same equation, the lines overlap, implying infinite solutions.

5. What are some real-world applications of solving pairs of linear equations?

  • Mixing ingredients in recipes: Balancing different ingredients based on desired qualities or quantities.
  • Calculating cost and revenue in business: Determining pricing strategies or resource allocation based on production and demand functions.
  • Analyzing motion in physics: Relating displacement, velocity, and time in scenarios with constant or varying speeds.
  • Modeling supply and demand in economics: Understanding market equilibria and price adjustments based on consumer and producer behavior.

6. What are some challenges in solving pairs of linear equations?

  • Dealing with messy calculations, especially when coefficients are fractions or decimals.
  • Recognizing special cases like parallel or identical lines that require alternative approaches.
  • Choosing the most efficient method for the specific system of equations.

7. Can we use technology to solve pairs of linear equations?

Absolutely! Graphing calculators, spreadsheets, and online tools can plot lines, perform calculations, and provide solutions instantly. However, understanding the concepts and methods behind manual solving remains crucial for building deeper mathematical understanding.

8. How can visualizing solutions on a graph enhance our understanding?

Plotting the lines reveals their geometric relationship, making it easier to identify solutions as intersection points, parallel lines, or overlapping lines. Visualization also helps interpret solutions in real-world contexts, connecting mathematical concepts to concrete scenarios.

9. What are some ways to practice solving pairs of linear equations?

  • Start with simple systems with integer coefficients and practice different methods.
  • Progress to more complex systems with fractions, decimals, or variables in the constants.
  • Challenge yourself with word problems that involve translating real-world situations into systems of equations.
  • Utilize online resources and practice exercises to test your skills and gain confidence.

10. How does solving pairs of linear equations fit into broader mathematical learning?

It builds foundational skills in algebra, such as manipulating equations, understanding variables, and interpreting slopes. This knowledge serves as a stepping stone for tackling more advanced topics like systems of inequalities, matrix algebra, and higher-order polynomials.

Remember, solving pairs of linear equations is a gateway to unlocking countless applications in various fields. By mastering the concepts and practicing diverse methods, you’ll equip yourself with valuable tools for analytical thinking and problem-solving in the mathematical world and beyond!