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Panchang: The Comprehensive System of Timekeeping in Hinduism

The Panchang, also known as the Hindu Calendar, is a traditional system of timekeeping that has been used in India for centuries. It is a comprehensive system that includes information on astrological calculations, planetary movements, lunar cycles, and other important events. In this article, we will explore the history, significance, and various components of the Panchang.

  1. Introduction: What is Panchang? The word ‘Panchang’ comes from Sanskrit, where ‘Panch’ means ‘five,’ and ‘Ang’ means ‘parts.’ Hence, Panchang refers to the five components that make up the Hindu Calendar system. These five components are the Vara (day of the week), Tithi (lunar day), Nakshatra (constellation), Yoga (combination of planets), and Karana (half of a Tithi).
  2. History of Panchang The origins of Panchang can be traced back to the Vedic period in India. The Vedas contain references to the lunar calendar system, which was used to determine the timing of religious rituals and ceremonies. Over time, the Panchang evolved to include astronomical and astrological calculations, which helped in predicting celestial events such as eclipses and planetary transits.
  3. Significance of Panchang Panchang plays a significant role in the lives of Hindus as it is used to determine auspicious timings for important events such as weddings, housewarming ceremonies, and other religious rituals. It is also used to calculate the dates of major festivals and fasting days.
  4. Components of Panchang The five components of Panchang are Vara, Tithi, Nakshatra, Yoga, and Karana. Each of these components plays an important role in determining the auspiciousness of a particular day or time.
  5. Vara (Day of the Week) Vara refers to the seven days of the week, which are named after the seven celestial bodies in Hindu mythology. Each day is associated with a particular deity and has its own significance.
  6. Tithi (Lunar Day) Tithi refers to the lunar day, which is calculated based on the position of the Moon. There are 30 Tithis in a lunar month, and each Tithi has its own significance.
  7. Nakshatra (Constellation) Nakshatra refers to the 27 constellations or star clusters in the night sky. Each Nakshatra is associated with a particular deity and has its own unique characteristics.
  8. Yoga (Combination of Planets) Yoga refers to the combination of planets in the sky. There are 27 Yogas in a lunar month, and each Yoga has its own significance.
  9. Karana (Half of a Tithi) Karana refers to half of a Tithi and is used to determine the auspiciousness of a particular day or time. There are 11 Karanas in a lunar month.
  10. Conclusion: Importance of Panchang in Modern Times Even in modern times, Panchang continues to be an essential tool for Hindus, as it helps in determining the auspiciousness of a particular day or time. With the availability of online Panchang calculators and mobile apps, it has become easier than ever to access this valuable information.


  1. “Panchang.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., n.d. Web. 11 May 2023. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Panchang.
  2. “Hindu Calendar.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 11 May 2023. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu

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